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Both experience and studies suggest that teachers in rural Pakistan either show reduced interest towards Professional Development (PD) or if they avail limited PD opportunities, they hardly bring any significant changes in their instructional practices. One of the assumptions in this regard, although not proved empirically, is that the system where teachers work lack monitoring and accountability mechanism. In this background, this research aimed to understand the monitoring and accountability system influencing teachers’ participation in PD. Using focused interview procedure, data were collected from the key stakeholders namely teachers, school leaders, officials of education department and representatives of PD provider organisations. It was found that officials from education department extend surprisingly limited monitoring support to the teachers in schools. Moreover, the system lacks any recognition or reward for PD. Involvement in PD makes no difference in the career of a teacher. Consequently, teachers show reduced interest towards PD. The research suggests that to enhance teachers’ participation in PD, the system should introduce a system of appraisal where teachers are made accountable for PD, and rewarded based on the changes they bring in their practices through availing PD opportunities.
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