The Missing Pedagogical Link for Malaysian Environmental Citizenship: An Emerging Model of Interconnectedness of Knowledge Domains and Values Mediation

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Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini Daniel
Subarna Sivapalan
Khai Ern Lee
Thiagarajan Nadeson


In Malaysian education, an approach to inculcate Environmental Citizenship (EC) comprising positive attitudes and pro-environmental behaviour is to try and improve Sustainable Development (SD) awareness based upon knowledge of the environment, social, cultural, and economic domains. However, will the increase of knowledge of these domains suffice for enhancing EC? The paper discusses a 2019-2020 nationwide survey conducted to determine the EC status and SD awareness. The study had 1976 respondents, and statistical analysis revealed that the overall self-perceived EC and SD awareness levels were high among Malaysians. However, correlational analysis between the EC and the SD knowledge component domains revealed low associations indicating a lack of interconnectedness between the domains. Environmental values, investigated as an exploratory variable in the study, appeared to have a mediating role between the EC and SD awareness component domains. Further analysis using PLS-SEM software revealed that values did play a mediating role. Based on these findings, the paper argues for an emerging model for a missing pedagogical link in transforming Malaysian EC through SD awareness education for pro-environmental behaviour. Implications for an education policy are discussed.


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